Explanations, Examples and Arguments on Climate Change

This page contains material to expand the Manifesto 'Climate Change: Roots and Actions'. Each section is pointed to from a part of the Manifesto, and points back there.

Understanding the Relationship Between Climate Change and Global Economy

There has been considerable discussion among economists, including at government and global level, of how climate change might impact global economy in the future. But there has been much less discussion on two other relationships:

But all three relationship must be taken into account, and all three understood. We call urgently for more discussion of the latter two.

In addition, in this Manifesto we a deeper root to both these:

In this Manifesto we try to face the challenge of all three.

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Climate Change and Global Temperature: A Climatological Explanation

The problem of climate change is now both urgent and unavoidable because over the last few years the rate of climate change emissions to the atmosphere has been accelerating. Since the industrial revolution, human activities have increased atmospheric trace gases such as carbon dioxide, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, which leads to climate change. In addition to carbon dioxide (CO2) other gases like methane (CH4) also have a powerful greenhouse effect, but since their concentration is much less, the effect of them is less than that of CO2. To talk about them together, we talk about 'climate change emissions' (CCEs). This is a complex chain of effects:

Before the start of the industrial era, around 1750, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration had been approximately 280 parts per million (ppm) for several thousand years. Ice from Antartica also indicate that the atmospheric concentration of CO2 did not exceed 300ppm for the 650,000 years before the beginning of the industrial era. The Industrial Revolution disturbed this balance and it has risen continuously since then, reaching 383 ppm in 2007. The annual carbon dioxide growth-rate was larger during the last ten years (1.9 ppm/year from 1995-2005) than it has been since the beginning of continuous direct atmospheric measurements (1.4 ppm/year from 1960-2005). This unexpected increase in carbon dioxide concentration is important, because the current suites of emission scenarios informing the international and national climate change agenda seldom include emissions data post 2000 (Anderson and Bows, 2008). For example, while Stern (2006) assumes a mean annual CO2e (CO2 equivalent: CO2 plus other greenhouse trace gasses) emission growth between 2000 and 2006 of approximately 0.95%, the growth rate calculated from the latest empirical data is closer to 2.4%. At the present rate of increase, atmospheric CO2 concentration will reach 400 ppm in about 10 years. [Source: John Lockwood]

Why is it necessary to keep CO2 concentration down? And what concentration is desirable? The average global change in surface temperature between the depth of the last ice age about 20,000 years ago and the present day is about 5C. A concentration of 450 ppm would increase global temperatures by 2C - equivalent to almost half of the temperature change between the present day and the depth of the last ice age. Such an increase would have significant impacts. See impacts below. Anything more than 2C is likely to be very damaging.

The politicians tend to see 550 ppm as a 'magic figure' to work with in their planning: we must at all costs keep concentrations below 550 ppm. How to achieve this? Since we cannot (within political feasibility) cut the level of CCEs overnight, it is expected that CCEs will peak sometime in the next 20 years and then decline; the date at which CCEs peak and the rate of decline thereafter is called a trajectory. Studies of different trajectories have been carried out:

Committee Climate Change (CCC) (2008) have analysed eight greenhouse gas emission trajectories. Trajectories with global emissions peaking in 2028, and with subsequent reductions in total CO2 emissions of 1.5%, 2% and 3% per annum. Trajectories with global emissions peaking in 2016 with subsequent reductions in total CO2 emissions of 1.5%, 2%, 3% and 4%. None of the three trajectories with emissions peaking in 2028 would keep atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations below 550 ppm CO2e by the end of the century, and all would give a global average warming of 2.5-2.8C this century. Global temperature increases above 2C are widely considered to be potentially highly damaging. CCC (2008) does not believe that a global policy, which leaves emissions peaking as late as 2028, is adequate. All the trajectories with emissions peaking in 2016, except a 1.5% annual reduction after 2016, would keep concentrations below 550 ppm CO2e by the end of the century. Only reductions after 2016 at 3% or 4% per year would limit the chance of reaching 4C to very low levels, with central model estimates indicating a 2.2C rise this century with the 3% trajectory, and a 2.1C rise with the 4% one. Even in these cases the CCC (2008) comment that the chances of exceeding 2C by 2100 would be 63% and 56% respectively. [Source: John Lockwood]

The following, part of a draft of a Report on emission targets for TearFund written by John Lockwood, and used with permission, puts it all together:

" As already noted, the long life of CO2 in the atmosphere makes stabilization difficult, and at present nearly impossible in the short term, for levels below the present atmospheric concentration (383 ppm). The carbon cycle has a strong one-way direction in the short term that is to increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration. For this reason Hansen et al (2008) target of 350 ppm, while scientifically sound, is not attainable in the foreseeable future. Houghton (private communication) comments that the stabilization of CO2 alone below 400 ppm would require an immediate drastic reduction in global emissions which would be extremely difficult to achieveand that this is not attainable. Houghton believes that the targets of 2C and 450 ppm (around 520 CO2e) provide a rational basis for action at the present time. However a 450 ppm stabilization level for CO2 only provides a 50% chance of achieving a 2C temperature rise. An 80% chance of achieving 2C would require stabilization at about 380 ppm (around 440 ppm CO2e), the current atmospheric CO2 level. A 50% chance of a 3C temperature rise only would require a CO2 stabilization level of 550 ppm (around 620 ppm CO2e).

CCC (2008) have analysed eight greenhouse gas emission trajectories. Trajectories with global emissions peaking in 2028, and with subsequent reductions in total CO2 emissions of 1.5%, 2% and 3% per annum. Trajectories with global emissions peaking in 2016 with subsequent reductions in total CO2 emissions of 1.5%, 2%, 3% and 4%. None of the three trajectories with emissions peaking in 2028 would keep atmospheric GHG concentrations below 550 CO2e by the end of the century, and all would give a global average warming of 2.5-2.8C this century. CCC (2008) does not believe that a global policy, which leaves emissions peaking as late as 2028, is adequate. All the trajectories with emissions peaking in 2016, except a 1.5% annual reduction after 2016, would keep concentrations below 550 CO2e by the end of the century. Only reductions after 2016 at 3% or 4% per year would limit the chance of reaching 4C to very low levels, with central model estimates indicating a 2.2C rise this century with the 3% trajectory, and a 2.1C rise with the 4% one. Even in these cases the CCC (2008) comment that the chances of exceeding 2C by 2100 would be 63% and 56% respectively.

Anderson and Bows (2008) comment that in the absence of the widespread deployment of geoengineering technologies that remove and store atmospheric carbon dioxide they come to the following conclusions. If emissions peak in 2015, stabilization at 450 ppm CO2e requires subsequent annual reductions of 4% in CO2e and 6.5% in energy and process emissions. If emissions peak in 2020, stabilization at 550 ppm CO2e requires subsequent annual reductions of 6% in CO2e and 9% in energy and process emissions.

As the century progresses, because sulphur dioxide emissions are highly lightly to decrease, the sulphate aerosol cooling will decrease. Therefore the minor greenhouse gas contribution to global warming will steadily increase. Parry (2008) and Parry et al (2008) comment that limiting impacts to acceptable levels by mid-century and beyond would require an 80% cut in global emissions by 2050. This policy, leading to a stabilization of greenhouse gases at 400-470 ppm CO2 equivalents would still leave a large number (half billion in 2050) of people at risk of water stress and flooding by climate change. Lord John Browne, one time Group Chief Executive of British Petroleum, has stated that, for carbon dioxide, stabilisation in the range 500 CO2e 550 ppm is possible, and with care could be achieved without disrupting economic growth (Committee on Climate Change (CCC), 2008). Houghton (2008) considers that global emissions should peak at 2016 for 450 ppm CO2 (520 CO2e) stabilization and 2C temperature rise. As explained above the CCC report (2008) suggests that a decrease in emissions of at least 3% per year is required. As explained later, the peak for individual countries will vary, but all should decline to about zero at 2050.

Both the CCC (2008) study and that by Meinshausen et al (2006) suggest that greenhouse gas concentrations will have to overshoot an acceptable long-term level and then fall before temperatures reach equilibrium. If it were assumed that overshoot is not acceptable, then much stronger action would be required. Anderson and Bows (2008) show that a long-term stabilisation at 450 CO2e without overshoot (leaving a roughly 50% probability of exceeding 2C) will require a 6.5% annual reduction in fossil fuel CO2 emissions given current emissions growth.

The Rio Earth Summit in Article 2 states that the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere should be stabilized at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The stabilisation should be achieved within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner."

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Examples of Man-Made Climate Change Emissions

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Climate Change Impacts

Some negative impacts are happening now:

Some negative impacts are most likely to happen over the next few decades:

It is the poorest regions will be most negatively affected by climate change. (Is that just and fair?) With some of these impacts, there is no return; for example, once a species has been lost it cannot be recovered. Once we have increased the global temperature it will take millennia to reduce.

Are there any positive impacts? There might be for people in colder climates.

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How Do We Know?

Despite the noisy chatter from climate skeptics, the best science does point clearly towards the above being largely true. The science related to climate change is actually an orchestration of several sciences:

The first step above is what is loosely called climate science. The latter steps apart from the final one involve the human, social and societal sciences. The final one involves human responsibility: management, politics, etc.

By and large, the climate scientists and governments who agree on the reality of climate change and that it arises from human activity, have been careful about most of those steps (though some governments resist some of the findings of social sciences and are unwilling to take action).

By and large, the climate skeptics are engaged in a 'crusade' against climate change rather than contributing to debate; they are narrow-minded and not open to having their own beliefs and assumptions scrutinised (even though they claim and even believe they are). See, for example, examination of Nigel Lawson's book.

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The Atmosphere as a Nonlinear System

Developments in climate science over the last decade have increased awareness of the danger of severe and self-reinforcing climate change (Committee Climate Change, 2008). The atmosphere is a 'nonlinear' system: in a linear system, if we plot as a graph the amount of output against input, we would find a nice, predictable straight line, but in a nonlinear system, there is usually an unexpected steep part, where the output increases at a much faster rate than the input, and this makes it impossible to predict the rate of increase of output as input keeps on rising.

Graphs showing difference between linear and nonlinear systems

In the atmosphere, the 'input' is amount of CCEs, and the 'output' is the changes to climate and its impacts. The atmosphere is a nonlinear system, with an unexpected steep part. The reason this is important here is that climate change effects seem to be happening sooner than we had predicted, suggesting that the atmosphere is a nonlinear system.

John Lockwood, to explain this nonlinearity, writes the following text especially for this section.

The climate record shows rapid step-like shifts in climate variability that occur over decades or less, as well as climate extremes (e.g. droughts) that persist for decades. The variability of climate can be expressed in terms of the following basic modes:

['Feedback' is an engineering term that refers to the output of a process feeding back into itself as an input. What is called 'negative feedback' serves to reduce the effect and stabilise it; what is called 'positive feedback' serves to reinforce and magnify the effect and can lead to instability.]

The external causes operate mostly by causing variations in the amount of solar radiation received or absorbed by the Earth, and comprise variations in both astronomical (e.g. orbital parameters) and terrestrial forcings (e.g. atmospheric composition, aerosol loading). The internal free variations in the climate system are associated with both positive and negative feedback interactions between the atmosphere, oceans, cryosphere and biosphere. These feedbacks lead to instabilities or oscillations of the system on all time-scales, and can operate independently or reinforce external forcings.

The inherent non-linear nature of the atmosphere is manifest in interactions and fluctuations on a wide range of space and time scales. Even on the annual scale, abrupt circulation changes are observed as seasonal changes progress. Many climatic switches take place on time-scales that are relatively short, and make them of significant societal relevance. There are a number of types of behaviour found in dissipative, highly non-linear systems, under non-equilibrium conditions. In particular, as a system evolves, it may approach a bifurcation point where the natural fluctuations become abnormally high, as the system may 'choose' among various regimes. These bifurcation points are often know as tipping points in the popular literature [from the metaphor of walking slowly along a see-saw, until at one point it suddenly tips over]. Under non-equilibrium conditions, local events have repercussions throughout the whole system, with long-range correlations appearing at the precise point of transition from equilibrium to non-equilibrium conditions. Long-range correlations (teleconnections) are indeed observed in the atmosphere, and the strength of these teleconnections is observed to vary with time.

Examples of non-linearity in the climate system include the following.

Simulations from even the earliest global climate models have shown that the effects of loading the atmosphere with greenhouse gases would be seen first and be especially prominent in the Arctic, largely due to feedbacks involving the loss of sea ice and snow cover. Particularly important are the ice-albedo feedback, where absorption of solar radiation increases when snow melts, and the loss of sea ice cover allowing for strong heat transfers from the ocean to the atmosphere. Serreze (2009) has summarized recent climate change in the Arctic. In October 2007, surface temperature showed very large positive anomalies (10 - 12C) over areas of the Arctic Ocean experiencing record sea ice loss. This basic pattern of autumn warming has been emerging over the past seven years or so. Model simulations suggest that conditions are ripe for a 'tipping point' once the spring ice thickness averaged across the Arctic Ocean thins to about 2.5m, close to the value estimated for spring 2007 from IceSat, NASA's satellite altimeter system. In one of the model simulations, the tipping point occurred in 2024 when 1.8 million km2 of ice was lost. Associated with this Arctic warming, the extent and intensity of summer surface melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet has shown a general upward trend. There is evidence that some of this melt water is reaching the base of the large Greenland glaciers, lubricating them and increasing the iceberg discharge to the North Atlantic. This raises concern that projections of sea level rise through the 21st century are too conservative, What is surprising climatologists is the rapid rate of change in Arctic conditions.

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Reaching 80% Reduction in CCEs

Need the curve to show how difficult it will be to reach 80% reduction.

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Example of Leading Nations

Examples of Western attitude setting wrong example. to be written.

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All Sectors of Society Contribute to the Problem

For example:

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The Problems Reinforce Each Other

All these reinforce each other. Here are some initial examples of this - please suggest others.

This reinforcement has yet to be properly studied, investigated and understood. Perhaps someone will undertake serious research into this?

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Why Western Lifestyle Generates Climate Change Emissions

Speaking as a Westerner:

These lead to a mix of bigger and smaller things. Bigger things:

Smaller things, which nevertheless mount up:

Note: changing lifestyle does not mean 'sacrifices', but more joy in life. See the experience of Ashton Hayes.

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Why Global Economic Activity Generates CCEs

==== this is grabbed from another email. Needs rewriting.

Suppose I receive $1000 per month. It might be used as follows:

The conversion ratio ($ to CCEs) might vary, but it is clear that all money-flow implies CCE generation.

Question is: can we find a way to reduce the conversion of $ to CCEs by a massive 80%? If not, then the total global economy must shrink.

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Examples of Ignoring of Aspects

To be written.

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Examples How Social and Economic Structures Affect CCEs

The various structures of society encourage some ways of living and discourage others. Structures include structures of taxation, which can encourage us towards some activities and discourage others, legal structures, health and safety structures, political structures, structures formed from our current beliefs about the nature of the world, for example from science, structures formed from our expectations and aspirations, etc. To be written.

How Structures Encourage certain behaviours, most of which increase CCEs. First, some high-level general examples:

Now some smaller, more concrete examples:

How Structures Discourage CCE Reduction:

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How Climate Change Will/Might Damage Other Areas of Life

to be written

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The Illusion that Technology will Solve the Problem

showing examples of belief in technology and why it is likely to be illusory, or the extent to which technology will be able to deliver. e.g.

In addition, technology, especially information technology, keeps on inventing new 'hedonic products', which we find very pleasurable and, once tasted, do not willingly give up.

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The Illusion that Market Forces Can Solve the Problem

to be written

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The Illusion of Trickle-down Finance

to be written

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Spiritual Drivers

How aspirations, expectations drive our actions and attitudes.

Example: The prevalent attitude in our modern society is that we should do our utmost to try to keep what we have and possess by all possible means, and even expand it where possible our material standard of living fully included. But precisely that fear, that utmost concern, motivates us again and again to do things which, seen in a realistic way, aggrevates the paradoxes and increase the tensions, and so threaten the very underpinnings of nature and of our own human existence.

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Spiritual Root of Morality

BobG: Not sure what you were referring to by "the deepest level for our sense for morality, justice, stewardship ".

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Idolatry

Forms of idolatry catch hold of persons, communities, societies, especially in the form of some kind of absolute goals (ideologies). Idolatry occurs when we (individuals, communities and societies) give absolute importance to some aspect of our lives that is not worthy of such adulation. Our idols are sacrosanct: we protect from any threat, are willing to sacrifice other aspects of life to and for them, and our idols determine the way we see things. Our idols influence our deepest assumptions, aspirations and commitments. For a fuller discussion of idolatry see summary of Goudzwaard's notion.

Different sectors of Western society have different types of idol. Governments idolise economic growth and prestige, businesses and other organisations idolise competition, and individuals idolise personal convenience, among other things. Here are some oft-heard statements associated with reasons for not taking wholehearted action on climate change or other environmental responsibility, which indicate idolatry; they are by no means exhaustive.

Taking effective action on climate change is seen as a threat to our idols, because we protect our idols. Despite lip service, it is seen as of less importance because our idols determine what we deem of ultimate importance. This is what makes us incapable of real action, and it also generates illusions in us. Even followers of religions that abhor idolatry (e.g. Judaism, Islam, Christianity) can fall into this trap.

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Please Comment:

John Henry Lonie suggested "The root cause of this I think is simply man s alienation from God, creation and himself (your part 3)". Is it helpful to include that? I wonder whether it is too general, theological an idea. It is also centred on the individual, and - I did not fully realise this until today - the Manifesto must centre on society. True, society is composed of individuals, but I am not sure whether that is helpful here. What I think might be needed is to address the components or immediate consequences of this alienation, including idolatry, ruling illusions, etc. But maybe it's because there are useful possibilities that I cannot see.

Please comment.

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Why Spiritual Change is Necessary

Some examples:

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New Ways of Seeing Things

We draw these from reading the Christian Bible. In spirituality, especially in the Judeo-Christian approach, there are also clear hints that can help us to find a realistic way out of the present predicament. The Bible suggests how to issues of today's life may be reinterpreted in new ways, which lead to sustainable, prosperous life.

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Tsedeq

tsedeq is the Hebrew word translated both 'justice' and 'righteousness'. Though translated into English in these two forms, it does not refer to two concepts, but one combined one. Whereas in English, 'justice' emphasises the social side and 'righteousness' is seen as an attribute of individuals, tsedeq is an indivisible combination of both.

Paul Marshall ['Thine is the Kingdom', Marshalls, 1984], discussing the meaning of tsedeq, defined justice-righteousness as "maintaining right relationships among all things in the created order". This implies that each type of thing - humans, animals, plants, planet, as well as institutions, bodies of knowledge, etc. - receives its due. The benefit of this approach is that it overcomes individualistic notions of justice without denying the importance of the individual. It moves us to a relational notion of justice, which recognises the interconnectedness of all things in creation, and that each has responsibility to the rest.

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A Real Purpose for Economic Activities

For example, the purpose of lending is to enable the impoverished to regain dignity in the community; it is NOT to enable us to purchase extra things, NOR is it to stimulate national economy. To misuse it, as we do at present, leads to catastrophe eventually.

Other examples to be written.

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How Finance Destroys Shalom

==== to be written.

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Blossoming Economy

The deep notion of shalom for instance points in another direction than the choice for an always expanding tunnel-economy, in which continually exclusion takes place in view of the overriding goal of reaching the light at the end of the tunnel. Shalom is the concept of broad happiness in the context of social wellbeing, of harmony with nature and of economic saturation, which together point in the direction of the choice for a blossoming economy. This is an organic, not a mechanistic concept, which reminds us direclty of the nature of processes of growth in even the simplest tree. In that kind of growth all cells are included.There is moreover a symbiosis with the surrounding other parts of nature, within the limits of their own carrying capacity. But all this goes without any kind of orientation to unlimited expansion. Not expansion is the horizon of growth, but blossoming en bearing fruit (compare this fertility with economic notions like enough food and shelter and medical care for all, and the presence of meaningful work for all). All this is however only possible on the base of the inbuilt wisdom present in each tree, that it does not make sense to try to grow till the skies, so that at a certain movement the growth-potential is re-directed from vertical expansion to fruit-bearing.

The economic parallel is, that we too in our modern, already mainly rich societies need such a kind of transformation, based on a levelling off of the trends towards an always rising level of income and of especially material consumption. That restraint has to become the base for the economic transfer which is needed: a transfer towards more care for nature and for other human beings, also in terms of meaningful employment, which at the same time is able to take away away the deep angle out of growing paradoxes and to halt the driving motor behind the acceleratation of climate change and the general warming up of the global atmosphere.

The notion of 'blossoming economy' comes from the Accra 2004 meeting of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC). The following is from the Report of Task Force on Covenanting for Justice to the General Council of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches:

"An Orchard of Blossoming Economies: An alternative vision of God's Economy

It is often suggested that there is no alternative to the neo-liberal economy. This is not true, as can be shown, by thinking of the economy as either a tunnel or a fruit tree. The tunnel represents the present process of globalisation. All people and all economies are expected to go through the tunnel of growing productivity and competitiveness in the global market if they wish to reach the light at the end - a high standard of consumption for everyone. However not all traffic is welcome in the tunnel. The least efficient, least-productive elements such as the unemployed and those countries not willing to adapt or modernize get in the way. The fastest vehicles have their own privileged lane. Finally everyone must accept the stress, pollution and noise in the tunnel. The traffic has priority over the environment.

A tree is quite different from a tunnel. A healthy tree is full of life and its growth is quite different from the journey through the tunnel. Firstly, all the living cells of the tree participate. Secondly, the tree does not overburden its own environment: it enriches it. Lastly, it bears fruit both to sustain its own life and to feed others. The activity of the cells is meaningful labour, the surroundings are the global environment and the fruits, the fulfilment of all basic needs. So how can a simple tree do that which the most advanced type of tunnel-economies cannot?

As soon as maturity is reached the tree refrains from further vertical growth and puts its energy and resources into making fruit. Its basic rule is blossoming not expansion. Even in the richest countries the law of endless market expansion is becoming a curse: stress is growing, environmental problems are uncontrollable and everything is under the rule of the market, which continues to demand higher productivity and competitiveness.

But this could all change if the demand for an ever rising standard of living was abolished and new patterns of production, consumption and distribution were based on caring and sharing. The material wealth of the wealthy has grown enough. Their trees are now mature and should leave space for new trees to develop and blossom. Our alternative is an orchard of blossoming economies each bearing its own kind of fruits. The time has come for radical change if total catastrophe is to be prevented and all creation to enjoy fullness of life."

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Political Action

The aim of political action is to bring nations (esp. governments) to a different view of their purpose, of working for "Right relationships among all things in the created order", and especially in relation to climate change. No longer should they give priority to competitive prestige. The ordinary citizen should begin generating discussion with politicians. The media should stimulate this. Political research bodies should begin researching how to move to this different national purpose. Politicians should become states(wo)men, who stand up for Right rather than competition or prestige.

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Economic Action

The aim to to prepare for moving to a blossoming economy. Somehow a joint deliberate choice for a gradual economic restructuration has to be taken, together. This requires debate, not about whether to restructure but about how to achieve it with equity and justice. All the social, economic, media, political agents have to be involved (including labour unions, organisations of employers, consumer organisations, environmental organisations, the various levels of government and so on). The start can be local and regional before it becomes national or European or global.

The restructuration needed will not be unlike the restructuration of the British economy during wartime, and the miniumum agreement is to pave the way to improve drastically the energy- and carbon efficiency of as well production and consumption in order to save the environment, in order to stop a further long term rise of temperature, and to mobilize those forms of technology which can strongly support this process of collective saving. This already presupposes important changes in the entire tax system, but also the joint willingness of consumers and middle-and higher income earners to accept that they will not receive any kind of income-compensation for the resulting higher `costs of living'.

The next step is a kind of re-diversification of existing patterns of productive economic growth and their accompanying various styles of technology and technological innovation, which are now now almost entirely oriented and focused on rising standards of material personal and collective consumption, to the developtment of a primarily preservative type of growth, focused on the continued maintenance and/or preservation of the stocks of human, social and natural capital, with the (rising) level of employment attached to it. Moreover, the notion of employment, unemployment, careers and home-making must be rethought, so that the important contribution of unpaid work and effort is recognised.

This whole process would be helped immensily if a common acceptance of time-horizons could take place, agreed upon together by the leading social and political agents, to reach the level of real saturation, or bliss, for society. This implies at least a clear restraint for the production and consumption of those varieties of goods and services which have a clear luxury character and command at the same time a high level of energy amd resource use. This common restraint should be implemented in a narrow correspondence (as a kind of term trade -off) with the building up of an extended human, social and and natural wellbeing, not only for people here, but also for poor people elsewhere, in the style of real sharing of all resources..

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Media Action

The aim of media action is to begin moving media towards its purpose of stimulating inclusive, critical discourse about what "right relationships among all things" entails now. Achieving this will facilitate the other actions, because most of them involve discourse. Those who have a link with the central thinkers and planners in all media should begin bringing to them this new purpose, and working out with them what this means in their particular medium (TV, radio, film, theatre, comedy, newspapers, magazines, journals, advertising, religious sermons, web sites, social networking sites, and more.).

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Examples of Spiritual Solutions

We can locate in history examples of spiritual action which have been effective in turning society around to take a different way. Some are major, others minor, but all have resulted in a widespread change in people's beliefs, aspirations, expectations, lifestyle and behaviour.

These major changes are effective, but continued vigilance thereafter is needed. Some of the above 'revivals' deteriorated after perhaps 50 years into religious rules and regulations. But that does not detract from their effectiveness in solving intractable problems of society for a time.

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An Outline of the Christian Way

As far as these illusions do have idolatric traits, we find in the Judeo-Christian tradition not only clear warnings against them, but also the spiritual power (after unmasking) to break them, so that a real widening of the perspective becomes possible. The Christian view gives the following:

Sadly, however, many so-called evangelical Christians, especially in North America, have a much narrower view and sphere of concern. See Andrew Faraday's portrayal of this. Nevertheless, we believe that what is said in this Manifesto is relevant to both Christians and non-Christians, and needs to be taken seriously by all human beings.

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This is part of a project involving Sir John Houghton, Prof. Bob Goudzwaard, Prof. Andrew Basden, Dr. John Lockwood to understand the links between climate change, global economy, spirituality.

Copyright (c) 2009 The CCGE Group.

Created: 1 February 2009. by Andrew Basden using Protext on Amiga.

Last updated: 22 February 2009 amendments from BG. 22 March 2009 last few added. 13 April 2009 changed to emphasise 'way', and replaced 'religious' by 'spiritual', in response to BG's comments. 3 May 2009 JHL piece; Accra 'Orchard'; Lockwood explanation. 15 May 2009 struct eg. 17 May 2009 added all.sectors, reinforce, pol.action, media.action, moved sections about in accordance with mfst. 31 May 2009 Added climatological details from JL to 'Climate Change climatological explanation'; added nonlinearity; moved some bits of 1.2, 1.3 from mfst to here, in response to BG's comments of 090529, and more about structures of society; added pointer to AF's concern about evangelicals. 12 June 2009 Hedonic products. 19 July 2009 loophole example; modifications+refs by J. Lockwood; theme of idolatry filled out here, replacing rlg.idol. 14 December 2009 science. 20 December 2009 changed ccx.